Resources

Welcome to our resources page. Here you will find amongst other things, reading and reference lists, videos and templates. If you have a resource that you would like to share, please contact us.

Also, be sure to check out and subscribe to our monthly newsletter, affectionately know as The MU, join or watch previous episodes of Crisis & Coffee, view the recordings from our Oct, 2020 Virtually CRISIS Conference, and/or visit our Crisis Blog.

Check your Crisis Communication Plan against our Crisis Communication Plan Checklist.

There is no right or wrong. Our checklist is designed to help you advance your Crisis Communication program.

Videos & Recordings

World health forum on risk perception

December 4, 2020 the Centre for Crisis & Risk Communications was asked to participate in a world health forum which focused on the the topic of risk perception (in the context of COVID-19). We were honored to join researchers from around the globe (Canada, United Kingdom, Japan, Spain & the World Health Organization). This event was hosted by the Pan American Health Organization and sponsored by the Canadian Embassy in Mexico City.

7 science-based rules for communicating in high stress environments

On July 22, 20202 we were so grateful to present:

7 science-based rules for communicating in high stress environments

to the Senior Women Academic Administrators of Canada (SWAAC). Here is the presentation including some of the question and answer period. Thank you SWACC for the opportunity to have this discussion with you membership.

Risk Communication During a Health Crisis

On April 15, 2020, we hosted a webinar, Communicating during a health crisis. In this webinar, we explored the idea that high stress and high concern situations change the rules of communications, as should your communication strategies.

We discussed:

  • the basic science behind risk and health communications,
  • core and fundamental principles of risk communications,
  • basic risk communication tools and templates that you can be used in your messaging tomorrow.

COVID-19 Risk Communications

March 2020, Centre for Crisis & Risk Communication Principal, Benjamin Morgan gave a presentation to the International Association of Business Communicators – Calgary on risk communications, related to COVID-19. In this video, Benjamin shares some of the science and research behind risk communications and some tools that may support your organizations’ communications.

Pandemic Risk Communication & Business Continuity Planning

On March 19 2020, The Centre for Crisis & Risk Communication held a webinar on Pandemic Risk Communication & Business Continuity Planning. The webinar was hosted by the International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM) and was supported by the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) – Edmonton. Emergency Management professional Greg Solecki joined us to provide some emergency management and business continuity insights.

Calgary Mayor, Naheed Nenshi Reflects on the Calgary Floods (2013)

The Mayor of Calgary, Alberta Canada, Naheed Nenshi was instrumental in the approach and the tone of the crisis communications during the 2013 Calgary Floods. “If we know it, Calgarians need to know it.” We asked Mayor Nenshi to reflect on the crisis communications and importance of being authentic, especially during times of crisis.

(Communication) Lessons Learned From the Calgary Floods (2013)


Benjamin Morgan presents “lessons learned” from (at the time) Canada’s costliest natural disaster and largest peace-time evacuation events #YYCFlood 2013 at Royal Roads University.

2013 Calgary Floods

Thank you to Royal Roads University for creating and sharing this video. Several months after (at the time) the costliest natural disaster and largest peacetime evacuation in Canadian history, Royal Roads University asked Benjamin Morgan to return to the university to share his experience and lessons learned from the #YYCFlood 2013.

Dr. Vincent Covello Resources

Communication Under Fire

Vincent T. Covello, PhD, Director, Center for Risk Communication of New York City, presented “Communication Under Fire: Focus On Public Health Situations,” from Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, on April 4, 2003. The National Association of Local Boards of Health presented the 4th Annual Ned E. Baker Lecture in Public Health. This was also sponsored by the: Wood County Hospital Foundation, Cove Charitable Trust of Boston, Northwest Ohio Consortium for Public Health, Western Reserve Geriatric Education Center, & the College of Health & Human Services at Bowling Green State University. This video was distributed to local health departments.

To help prepare to respond to questions, should your organization be asked to respond to an event, Dr. Covello and his research team have determined the 77 most commonly asked questions – by journalists during crisis events. These questions can help you prepare for how you respond.

Reading & Resources List

Risk & crisis communication practices:

  • Andrews, R. (1999). Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves: A History of American Environmental Policy. New Haven. Yale University Press.
  • Aufder Heide, E. (2004). “Common misconceptions about disasters: Panic, the “disaster syndrome,” and looting,” in The first 72 hours: A community approach to disaster preparedness, ed. M. O’Leary. Lincoln, NB: iUniverse Publishing.
  • Beck, M. and Kewell, B. (2014). Risk: A Study of Its Origins, History and Politics. New Jersey:  World Scientific Publishing Company.
  • Beck, U. (1992) Risk society: Towards a new modernity. Sage, London;
  • Beck, U. (2008) “Living in the world risk society.” Economy and Society (35):329–345
  • Becker, S. M. 2007. “Communicating Risk to the Public after Radiological Incidents.” British Medical Journal 335(7630): 1106–1107.
  • Bennett, P., Calman, K., eds., (1999). Risk communication and public health. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Bennett, P., Coles, D., McDonald, A. (1999). “Risk communication as a decision process,” in Risk communication and public health, eds. P. Bennett and K. Calman. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Bier, V. M. (2001). “On the state of the art: risk communication to the public.” Reliability Engineering and System Safety 71(2): 139-50.
  • Bostrom, A., C. Atman, Fischhoff, B., Morgan, M. (1994). “Evaluating Risk Communications: Completing and Correcting Mental Models of Hazardous Processes, Part II.” Risk Analysis 14(5): 789– 797.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012). Emergency, crisis, and risk communication. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Chess, C., Hance, B. J., Sandman, P. M. (1986). Planning dialogue with communities: A risk communication workbook. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Cook College, Environmental Media Communication Research Program.
  • Coombs, T. W. (1995). “Choosing the right words: The development of guidelines for the selection of the ‘appropriate’ crisis-response strategies”  Management Communication Quarterly 8 (4), 447-476.
  • Coombs, W. (1999). Ongoing Crisis Communications: Planning, Managing, and Responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
  • Coombs, W.T. (2007). “Protecting organization reputations during a crisis: The development and application of situational crisis communication theory.’’ Corporate Reputation Review 10(3): 163-176.
  • Coombs, W.T., Holloday, S.J. (2017). Handbook of Crisis Communication. London. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Covello V. (1993). “Risk communication and occupational medicine.” Journal of Occupational Medicine 35:18–19.
  • Covello, V. T. (2003). “Best practices in public health risk and crisis communication.” Journal of Health Communication 8 (Suppl. 1):  5–8; discussion, 148–151.
  • Covello, V.T. (2006). “Risk Communication and Message Mapping: A New Tool for Communicating Effectively in Public Health Emergencies and Disasters.” Journal of Emergency Management 4(3): 25-40.
  • Covello V.T. (2010). “Strategies for overcoming challenges for effective risk communication.” In: Heath RL, O’Hair H. eds. Handbook of risk and crisis communication. New York: Routledge.
  • Covello V.T. (2011). “Risk communication, radiation, and radiological emergencies: strategies, tools, and techniques.” Health Physics 101: 511–530.
  • Covello, V. T. (2014). “Risk communication,” in Environmental Health: From global to local, ed. H. Frumkin. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.
  • Covello, V.T., Allen, F.W. (1988). Seven cardinal rules of risk communication. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Covello, V.T, Merkhofer, M. (1993). Risk Assessment Methods: Approaches for Assessing Health and Environmental Risks. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Covello, V. T., McCallum, D. B., Pavlova, M. T., eds. (1989). Effective risk communication: the role and responsibility of government and nongovernment organizations. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Covello, V.T., Mumpower, J. (1985). “Risk Analysis and Risk Management: An Historical Perspective.” Risk Analysis. 5 (2):103-120.
  • Covello, V. T., Peters, R., Wojtecki, J., Hyde, R. (2001). ” Risk communication, the West Nile virus epidemic, and bio-terrorism: Responding to the communication challenges posed by the intentional or unintentional release of a pathogen in an urban setting.” Journal of Urban Health 78(2): 382–391.
  • Covello, V. T., Sandman, P. (2001). “Risk communication: Evolution and revolution,”  in Solutions to an environment in peril,  ed. A. Wolbarst. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Covello, V. T., Slovic, P., von Winterfeldt, D. (1986). “Risk communication: A review of the literature.” Risk Abstracts 3(4): 171–182.
  • Covello, V. T., Minamyer, S., Clayton, K. (2007). Effective risk and crisis communication during water security emergencies. EPA Policy Report; EPA 600-R07-027. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Cvetkovich, G., Siegrist, M., Murray R., Tragesser, S. (2002). “New Information and Social Trust Asymmetry and Perseverance of attributions about hazard managers.” Risk Analysis 22(2): 359-367.
  • Dunwoody, S. (2014). “Science journalism,” in Handbook of Public Communication of Science and Technology, eds. M. Bucchi and B. Trench. New York: Routledge.
  • Earle, T.C. (2010). “Trust in risk management: A model-based review of empirical research.” Risk Analysis 30(4): 541-574.
  • Earle, T.C., Siegrist, M. (2008). “On the relation between trust and fairness in environmental risk management. “ Risk Analysis 28(5): 1395-1414.
  • Fearn-Banks, K. (2007). Crisis Communications: A Casebook Approach, 3rd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Finn Frandsen, F., Johansen, W. (2017). Organizational Crisis Communication. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
  • Fitzpatrick C., Mileti DS. (1994)”Public risk communication,” in Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization, eds. R.D. Dynes and K.J. Tierney. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press.
  • Fischhoff, B. (1995). “Risk Perception and Communication Unplugged: Twenty Years of Process.” Risk Analysis 15(2): 137-45.
  • Fischhoff, B. (2013). “The science of science communication.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110: 14033-14039.
  • Fischhoff, B., Davis, A. L. (2014). “Communicating scientific uncertainty.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111(Suppl. 4): 13664-13671.
  • Fischhoff, B., Kadvany, J. (2011). Risk: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Flynn, J., Slovic, P., Mertz, C. K. (1994). “Gender, race, and perception of environmental health risks.” Risk Analysis 14(6): 1101-1108.
  • Glik D.C. (2007). “Risk communication for public health emergencies.” Annual Review of Public Health 28(1):33-54.
  • Hance, B. J., Chess, C., Sandman, P. M. (1990). Industry risk communication manual. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.
  • Heath, R., O’Hair, D., eds. (2009). Handbook of Risk and Crisis Communication. New York: Routledge.
  • Haight, J.M., ed. (2008). The Safety Professionals Handbook: Technical Applications. Des Plaines, IL: The American Society of Safety Engineers.
  • Heath, J., O’Hair (2009). “The Significance of Crisis and Risk Communication,.”  in Handbook of Risk and Crisis Communication, eds. R.L. Heath and H.D. O’Hair. New York: Taylor and Francis/Routledge.
  • Hyer, R.N., Covello, V.T. (2007). Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies: A World Health Organization Handbook. Geneva: World Health Organization Publications.
  • Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Macmillan Publishers.
  • Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., Tversky, A., eds. (1982). Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kahneman, D., Tversky, A. (1979). “Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk.” Econometrica 47(2): 263–291.
  • Kasperson, R.E. (1986). “Six Propositions on Public Participation and Their Relevance for Risk Communication.” Risk Analysis 6(3): 275– 281.
  • Kasperson, R.E., Golding, D., Tuler, D. (1992). “Social Distrust as a Factor in Sitting Hazardous Facilities and Communicating Risks.” Journal of Social Issues 48(4): 161– 187.
  • Kasperson, R. E., Renn, O., Slovic, P., Brown, H. S., Emel, J., Goble, R., Kasperson, J. X., Ratick, S. (1988). “Social amplification of risk: A conceptual framework.” Risk Analysis 8(2): 177–187.
  • Kasperson R.E., Palmlund I. (1989) “Evaluating Risk Communication.” In: Covello V.T., McCallum D.B., Pavlova M.T. (eds) Effective Risk Communication. Contemporary Issues in Risk Analysis, vol 4. Springer, Boston.
  • Kovoor-Misra, S. (2009). Crisis Management: Resilience and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Kroeber, A., Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definition. New York: Vintage Books.
  • Lindell M., Perry R. (1992). Behavioral Foundations of Community Emergency Planning. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing Co.
  • Lindell, M.K, Prater, C.S., Perry, R.W. (2006). Fundamentals of Emergency Management. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency. https://training.fema.gov/hiedu/aemrc/booksdownload/fem/
  • Lindenfeld, L., Smith, H., Norton, T., Grecu, N. (2014). “Risk communication and sustainability science: lessons from the field.” Sustainability Science 9(2): 119-27.
  • Lundgren, R., McMakin, A. (2018). Risk Communication: A Handbook for Communicating Environmental, Safety, and Health Risks. Hoboken, NJ: IEEE Press.
  • McComas, K. A. (2006). “Defining Moments in Risk Communication Research: 1996–2005.” Journal of Health Communication 11(1): 75-91.
  • Mileti, D.S., Sorenson J. (1990). Communication of Emergency Public Warnings. ORNL-6609. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
  • Mileti, D.S. (2017). Public Response to Disaster Warnings. http://swfound.org/media/82620/PUBLIC%20RESPONSE%20TO%20DISASTER%20WARNI NGS%20-%20Dennis%20S.%20Mileti.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2017.
  • Mileti, D., Nathe, S., Gori, P., Greene, M., Lemersal, E. (2004). Public hazards communication and education: the state of the art. Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards Center.
  • Morgan, M. G., Fischhoff , B., Bostrom, A., Atman, C. J. (2002) . Risk communication: A mental models approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • National Research Council (1989). Improving risk communication. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  • National Research Council (1996). Understanding risk: Informing decisions in a democratic society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  • National Research Council. (2013). Public Response to Alerts and Warnings Using Social Media: Report of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. U.S. Department of Commerce. (2016). Risk Communication and Behavior. Best Practices and Research. Washington, DC:  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council. (2008). Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making. Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making, eds. T. Dietz and P.C. Stern. Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  • National Academy of Sciences (2014). The Science of Science Communication II: Summary of a Colloquium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  • National Academy of Sciences (2017) Communicating Science Effectively. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press
  • Oliver-Smith, A., Hoffman, S., eds. (1999). “What is a Disaster?” in The Angry Earth: disaster in anthropological perspective. New York: Routledge.
  • Peters, E. (2012). “Beyond comprehension: The role of numeracy in judgments and decisions.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 21(1): 31-35.
  • Peters, R., McCallum, D., Covello, V. T. (1997). “The determinants of trust and credibility in environmental risk communication: An empirical study.” Risk Analysis 17(1): 43–54.
  • Pidgeon, N., Kasperson, R., Slovic, P. (2003). The Social Amplification of Risk. Cambridge University Press.
  • Renn, O. (2008). Risk Governance: Coping with Uncertainty in a Complex World. London, UK: Earthscan.
  • Renn, O. (2009). “Risk Communication,” in Handbook of Risk and Crisis Communication, eds. R.L. Heath and H.D. O’Hair. New York: Taylor and Francis/Routledge.
  • Renn, O., Levin, D. (1991). “Credibility and Trust in Risk Communication,” in Communicating Risks to the Public, eds. R. Kasperson and P. Stallen. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Reynolds, B. (2014). Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Reynolds, B., Seeger, M. W. (2005). “Crisis and emergency risk communication as an integrative model.” Journal of Health Communication, 10, 43–55.
  • Rock, D. (2008). “SCARF: a brain-based model for collaborating with and influencing others.” NeuroLeadership Journal, (1), 1-7.
  • Rodrıguez, H., Dıaz, W., Santos, J., Aguirre, B. (2007). “Communicating Risk and Uncertainty: Science, Technology, and Disasters at the Crossroads,” in Handbook of Disaster Research, eds. H. Rodríguez, E.L. Quarantelli, R.R. Dynes. New York: Springer.
  • Rowan, K. E. (1991). “Goals, obstacles, and strategies in risk communication: A problem-solving approach to improving communication about risks.” Journal of Applied Communication Research, 19, 300–329
  • Sandman, P.M. (1989). “Hazard versus outrage in the public perception of risk,” in Effective Risk Communication: The Role and Responsibility of Government and Non-Government Organizations, eds. V.T.Covello, D. B. McCallum, M.T. Pavlova. New York: Plenum.
  • Scarlett, H. (2019). Neuroscience for Organizational Change: An Evidence-based Practical Guide to Managing Change (2nd Edition). London and New York: Kogan Page Limited Publishing Co.
  • Sedej, T., Justinek, G. (2017). Effective Tools for Improving Employee Feedback during Organizational Change. In Organizational Productivity and Performance Measurements Using Predictive Modeling and Analytics, eds. M. Tavana, K.Szabat, and K. Puranam. Hershey, PA: IGO Global.
  • Seeger, M.W. (2006). “Best Practices in Crisis Communication: An Expert Panel Process.” Journal of Applied Communication Research 34(3): 232-44.
  • Seeger, M. W., Sellnow, T. L., Ulmer, R. R. (2003). Communication and organizational crisis. Westport, CT: Prager
  • Sheppard, B., Janoske, M., Liu, B. (2012). “Understanding Risk Communication Theory: A Guide for Emergency Managers and Communicators.” Report to Human Factors/Behavioral Sciences Division, Science and Technology Directorate. College Park, MD: U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
  • Slovic, P. (1987). “Perception of Risk.” Science 236 (4799): 280-85.
  • Slovic, P. (1999). ‘Trust, emotion, and sex.” Risk Analysis, 19(4): 689-701.
  • Slovic, P. (2000). The Perception of Risk. London, UK: Earthscan.
  • Slovic, P. (2016). “Understanding perceived risk: 1978-2015.” Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 58(1): 25-29.
  • Slovic, P., M. Finucane, L., Peters, E., MacGregor, D.G. (2004). “Risk as analysis and risk as feelings: Some thoughts about affect, reason, risk, and rationality.” Risk Analysis 24(2): 311-22.
  • Sellnow, T.L., Ulmer, R.R., Seeger, M.W. (2009). Effective Risk Communication: A Message-Centered Approach. New York, NY: Springer.
  • Sorenson, J.H. (2000). “Hazard warning systems: review of 20 years of progress.” Natural Hazards Review; 1: 119-125.
  • Stallen, P. J. M., Tomas, A. (1988). “Public concerns about industrial hazards.” Risk Analysis, 8(2): 235–245.
  • Steelman, T. A., and McCaffrey, S. (2013). “Best practices in risk and crisis communication: Implications for natural hazards management.” Natural Hazards 65(1): 683-705.
  • Tversky, A., Kahneman, D. (1974). “Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases.” Science, 185(4157): 1124-1131.
  • Ulmer, R., Sellnow, T., Seeger, M. (2011). Effective Crisis Communication: Moving from Crisis to Opportunity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. (2004). New York: United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.
  • U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2005). Superfund Community Involvement Handbook. EPA 540-K-05-003. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). Communicating in a Crisis: Risk Communication Guidelines for Public Officials. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
  • U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2020). Hazard Communication. Washington, D.C: U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Occupational Safety and Health. Accessed at: https://www.osha.gov/hazcom
  • Walaski, (Ferrante), P. (2011). Risk and Crisis Communications: Methods and Messages. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Weinstein, N. D. (1987). Taking care: Understanding and encouraging self-protective behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wojtecki, J.G., Peters, R.G. (2000). “Organizational Change: Information Technology Meets the Carbon Based Employee Unit.” The 2000 Annual: Volume 2, Consulting. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer
  • World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization (2006). Food safety risk analysis: a guide for national food safety authorities. Rome, Italy: World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization.
  • Wood, M.M., Mileti, D.S., Kano, M., Kelley, M.M., Regan, R., Bourque, L.B. (2011). “Communicating actionable risk for terrorism and other hazards.” Risk Analysis 34(4): 601- 615.
  • Zimmerman, R. (1987). “A process framework for risk communication.” Science, Technology, and Human Values 12 (Summer/Fall): 131-137.

General understanding of the field of risk and crisis communications:

  • Árvai, J., Rivers, L. III., eds. (2014). Effective Risk Communication. London: Earthscan.
  • Arvai, J., Campbell-Arvai, V. (2014). “Risk Communication: Insights from the Decision Sciences.” in Effective Risk Communication, eds. J. Arvai and L. Rivers III. London: Taylor and Francis.
  • Andrews, R. (1999). Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves: A History of American Environmental Policy. New Haven: Yale University Press
  • Aufder Heide, E. (2004). “Common misconceptions about disasters: Panic, the “disaster syndrome,” and looting,” in The first 72 hours: A community approach to disaster preparedness, ed. M. O’Leary. Lincoln, NB: iUniverse Publishing.
  • Beck, U. (1992). Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications
  • Beck, M., Kewell, B. (2014). Risk: A Study of Its Origins, History and Politics. New Jersey: World Scientific Publishing Company.
  • Becker, S. (2004). Emergency communication and information issues in terrorist events involving radioactive materials. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 2(3), 195–207.
  • Bennett, P., Calman, K., eds. (1999). Risk communication and public health. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Bennett, P., Coles, D., McDonald, A. (1999). “Risk communication as a decision process,” in Risk communication and public health, eds. P. Bennett and K. Calman. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Bier,V. M. (2001). “On the state of the art: risk communication to the public.” Reliability Engineering and System Safety 71(2):139-50.
  • Bohnenblust, H., P. Slovic. (1998). “Integrating Technical Analysis and Public Values in Risk Based Decision Making.” Reliability Engineering & System Safety 59: 151–159.
  • Boin, A., Rhinard, M., Ekengren, M. (2014). “Managing Transboundary Crises: The Emergence of European Union Capacity.” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 22(3): 131-142.
  • Boin, A., Hart, P., Stern, E. Sundelius, B. (2005). The Politics of Crisis Management: Public Leadership Under Pressure. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  • Bostrom, A. (2003). “Future Risk Communication.” Futures 35: 553–573
  • Bostrom, A., Atman, C., Fischhoff, B., Morgan, M.G. (1994). “Evaluating Risk Communications: Completing and Correcting Mental Models of Hazardous Processes, Part II.” Risk Analysis 14 (5): 789– 797.
  • Breakwell, G. M. (2007). The psychology of risk. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Emergency, crisis, and risk communication. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Chess, C., Hance, B. J., Sandman, P. M. (1986). Planning dialogue with communities: A risk communication workbook. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Cook College, Environmental Media Communication Research Program.
  • Chess, C., Hance, B.J., & Sandman, P.M. (1988). Improving dialogue with communities: A short guide to government risk communication. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.
  • Chess, C., Hance, B.J., & Sandman, P.M. (1989). Planning dialogue with communities. A risk communication workbook. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Cook College, Environmental Communication Research Program.
  • Chess, C., Salomone, K.L., Hance, B.J. (1995). “Improving Risk Communication in Government: Research Priorities.” Risk Analysis 15 (2): 127–135.
  • Chess, C., Salomone, K.L., Hance, B.J., Saville, A. (1995). “Results of a National Symposium on Risk Communication: Next Steps for Government Agencies.” Risk Analysis 15 (2): 115-120.
  • Cvetkovich, G., Vlek, C.A., Earle, T.C. (1989). “Designing Technological Hazard Information Programs: Towards a Model of Risk-adaptive Decision Making,” in Social Decision Methodology for Technical Projects, eds. C. A. J. Vlek and G. Cvetkovich. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
  • Coombs, W.T. (1998). “An analytic framework for crisis situations: Better responses from a better understanding of the situation.” Journal of Public Relations Research 10(3): 177-192.
  • Coombs, W. (1999). Ongoing Crisis Communications: Planning, Managing, and Responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Coombs, W.T. (2007). “Protecting organization reputations during a crisis: The development and application of situational crisis communication theory.” Corporate Reputation Review 10(3): 163-176.
  • Covello, V. (1992). “Risk communication, trust, and credibility.” Health and Environmental Digest, 6(1), 1–4.
  • Covello, V. (1993). “Risk communication, trust, and credibility.” Journal of Occupational Medicine, 35, 18–19.
  • Covello, V. (2003). “Best Practices in Public Health Risk and Crisis Communication.” Journal of Health Communication, Vol. 8, Supplement 1, June: 5-8.
  • Covello, V. (2006). “Risk Communication and Message Mapping: A New Tool for Communicating Effectively in Public Health Emergencies and Disasters.” Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 4 No.3, 25-40.
  • Covello, V. (2005). Risk Communication. In Frumkin, H. (ed.) Environmental Health: From Global to Local. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Wiley. 988-1008.
  • Covello, V. (2014). “Risk communication,” in Environmental health: From Global to Local (5th edition), ed. H. Frumkin. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.
  • Covello, V., Allen, F. (1988). Seven cardinal rules of risk communication. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy Analysis.
  • Covello, V., Merkhofer, M. (1993). Risk Assessment Methods: Approaches for Assessing Health and Environmental Risks. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Covello, V., McCallum, D., Pavlova, M., eds. (1989) Effective risk communication: the role and responsibility of government and nongovernment organizations. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Covello, V., Peters, R., Wojtecki, J., Hyde, R. (2001). “Risk communication, the West Nile virus epidemic, and bio-terrorism: Responding to the communication challenges posed by the intentional or unintentional release of a pathogen in an urban setting.” Journal of Urban Health 78(2): 382–391.
  • Covello, V., Sandman, P., Slovic, P. (1988). Risk Communication, Risk Statistics, and Risk Numbers. Washington, DC: CMA
  • Covello, V., Sandman, P. (2001). “Risk communication: Evolution and revolution,” in Solutions to an environment in peril, ed. A. Wolbarst. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Covello, V., Slovic, P., von Winterfeldt, D. (1986). “Risk communication: A review of the literature.” Risk Abstracts 3(4), 171–182.
  • Covello, V., Minamyer, S., Clayton, K. (2007). Effective risk and crisis communication during water security emergencies. EPA Policy Report; EPA 600-R07-027. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
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